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Title: Reclining Pan
Date: c.1535
Artist: attributed to Francesco da Sangallo
Italian, 1494–1576
Medium: marble
Dimensions:
25 x 52 3/4 x 23 1/4 in. (63.5 x 134 x 59.1 cm)
Credit Line: Museum Purchase
Object Number: 138:1947
Place made: Rome, Italy
Current Location: On View, Gallery 236
Notes:
In this sculpture the satyr Pan reclines on a rocky base amid grape clusters and vines. His left hand clutches a goatskin called a nebris that he wears around his neck. Such details, together with the small salamander carved amid the rocks, evoke a rustic scene befitting Pan, the half goat-half human god of the woods, fields, and flocks known for his lecherous pursuits. The reed pipe, or syrinx, in Pan's right hand is an allusion to the maiden Syrinx, who was changed into a patch of reeds to escape the satyr's advances. Francesco da Sangallo carved this sculpture from a recycled piece of ancient marble and it once served as a fountain; its water spout is still visible at the mouth of the sack above his right arm.
Signed: unsigned
Provenance
by 1626 - 1947
Cardinal Francesco Barberini (1597-1679), Palazzo Barberini, Rome, Italy; Barberini family, by inheritance [1]

1947
Adolph Loewi, Los Angeles, California, USA

1947 -
Saint Louis Art Museum, purchased from Adolph Loewi [2]


Notes:
[1] Several sources indicate that sculpture was in collection of the Barberini family in the early seventeenth century. For instance, the object was presumably in the Barberini collection by 1626 when the Dutch artist Cornelius Poelenburch (1594/95-1667, who is also referred to as Polemburg or Poelenburgh), drew the sculpture during his sojourn to Italy from 1617 to approximately 1626. Even though the drawing is now lost, a 1669 publication illustrates a print of the "Reclining Pan" by Jan de Bisschop based upon Poelenburch's composition. The dates of the Poelenburch's stay indicate that the sculpture was most likely in the collection of the Barberini family by his departure in 1626 [Van Gelder, Jan G., and Ingrid Jost, "Jan de Bisschop and his Icones & Paradigmata: Classical Antiquities and Italian Drawings for Artistic Instruction in Seventeenth Century Holland." Doornspijk: Davaco, 1985, cat. nos. 57-58, pgs. 142-143].

In addition, according to the inventory of Cardinal Francesco Barberini compiled by Nicolo Menghini from 1632-40, the sculpture is listed as being in the Barberini collection at this time: "81) Un satiro del Natural quale serve per una fontana et tience un braccio in testa et dalla banda destra tiene un otro n.o." [Lavin, Marilyn Aronberg. "Seventeenth-Century Barberini Documents and Inventories of Art." New York: New York University Press, 1975, p. 133, no. 81]. Lavin notes that the inventory numbers, 71-191, refer to sculptures that had entered the collection before this inventory was begun.

Ettore Sestieri wrote in 1948 that the presence of the work in the collection dated to the first part of the seventeenth century when Pope Urban VIII, Maffeo Barberini (1568-1644), began to assemble his collection. Indeed, the work may have been in the collection as early as 1600 when Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640) sketched the "Reclining Pan" during his first trip to Italy. An entry in the Farington Diary records that Benjamin West (1738-1820) also saw the sculpture when he visited the Barberini collection in 1795 [letter from Ettore Sestieri dated May 28, 1948; Grieg, James, ed. "Farington Diary." Vol. 1. December 19, 1795, p. 125; SLAM document files].

In 1937, Prince Urban Barberini began negotiating with Mussolini to obtain special permission to export objects from the Barberini collection, including "Reclining Pan." In November 1947, the sculpture was finally allowed to leave Italy and enter the United States, where it was accessioned by the Museum the following month [letter dated January 19, 1948 from Adolph Loewi; Museum press release dated February 4, 1948; SLAM document files].

[2] Bill of sale dated January 5, 1947 [SLAM document files]. Minutes of the Administrative Board of Control of the City Art Museum, December 4, 1947.
Exhibition History
Title: Francesco da Sangallo's Reclining Pan : Highlight from the Collection
Date: March 30 – September 11, 2009
Venue: Saint Louis Art Museum
Title: Mostra del Cinquecento in Palazzo Strozzi
Date: April – October, 1940
Venue: Palazzo Strozzi, Florence
Title: Art in Context: Giovanni Angelo Montorsoli's "Reclining Pan"
Date: January 30-June 6, 1990
Venue: Saint Louis Art Museum
Title: People at the Art Museum
Date: July 7- September 9, 2001
Venue: Saint Louis Art Museum
Publication History
Title: Italian Paintings and Sculpture
Periodical Title: The Saint Louis Art Museum Bulletin
Author: Nora Wiseman Desloge
Author: Laura Meyer
Publisher: Saint Louis Art Museum
Title: Michelangelo and His World: Sculpture of the Italian Renaissance
Author: Joachim Poeschke
Title: The St. Louis Art Museum: Handbook of the Collections
Publisher: Saint Louis Art Museum
Title: Favorites From the Collection: Reclining Pan
Periodical Title: Saint Louis Art Museum Magazine
Edition: April-June
Year Published: 2002
Title: Per il giovane Francesco da Sangallo
Periodical Title: Nuovi Studi
Year Published: 2007
Title: Works Attributed to Giovannangelo Montorsoli
Periodical Title: Studi Storici dell'ordine dei servi di Maria
Author: Conrad Borntrager
Title: Art in Context: Giovanni Angelo Montorsoli
Periodical Title: Saint Louis Art Museum Magazine
Edition: January - February
Year Published: 1990
Title: Verborgene Schätze der Skulpturensammlung
Year Published: 1992
Title: Roman Baroque Sculpture: The Industry of Art
Year Published: 1989
Title: Fra Giovan Angelo da Montorsoli
Author: Bergit Laschke
Title: Reclining Pan Demonstrates Interest in Antiquity
Periodical Title: Saint Louis Art Museum Magazine
Publisher: Saint Louis Art Museum
Title: Saint Louis Art Museum: Handbook of the Collection
Editor: Mary Ann Steiner
Publisher: Saint Louis Art Museum
Title: Die Kunst der Italienischen Renaissance
Author: Rolf Toman
Title: Creative Copies: Interpretative Drawings from Michelangelo to Picasso
Author: Egbert Havercamp-Begemann
Title: Der Barberinische Faun
Periodical Title: Wiener Jahrbuch fur Kunstheschicte
Author: Anny E. Popp
Title: Jan de Bisschop and his Icones and Paradigmata
Periodical Title: Classical Antiquities and Italian Drawings for Artistic Instruction in Seventeenth Century Holland
Author: Jan G. van Gelder
Author: Ingrid Jost
Title: Répertoire de la Statuarie Grecque et Romanine
Author: Salomon Reinach
Title: Teutsche Akademie der edlen Bau-, Bild-, und Malereikünste
Year Published: 1679
Title: The Saint Louis Art Museum Handbook of the Collections
Editor: Mary Ann Steiner
Publisher: Saint Louis Art Museum
Title: Signorum verum icones
Author: Johannes Episcopius
Title: Handbook of the Collections: The City Art Museum of Saint Louis
Publisher: Saint Louis Art Museum
Title: Roma nell'arte la scultura nell'evo moderno
Author: Alberto Riccoboni
Title: Storia dell'arte italiana
Author: Adolfo Venturi
Title: The Gallery and Private Collection of Prince Barberini in Rome
Periodical Title: Apollo
Author: Michele de Benedetti
Title: Eine Pseudoantike des Cinquecento und ihr Echo in der Kunst des VII und VIII Jahrhunderts
Periodical Title: Zeitschrift für Bildende Kunst
Author: Hellmuth Bethe
Title: Rubens and the Classical Tradition
Year Published: 1968
Title: From Writing Desk to Earthly Paradise: Placing the Saint Louis Art Museum's "Reclining Pan"
Author: Felicia Else
Title: The Literature of Art: Rubens as a Draughtsman
Periodical Title: Burlington Magazine
Author: Michael Jaffé
Title: Rubens Drawings
Author: Ludwig Burchard
Author: R. A. d'Hulst
Title: Montorsoli e la sua opera genovese
Author: Carla Manara
Title: Pan & Syrinx: Eine erotische Jagd Peter Paul Rubens, Jan Brueghel und ihre Zeitgenossen
Author: Justus Lange
Author: Christine Van Mulders
Author: Bernhard Schnackenburg
Author: Staatliche Museen Kassel
Title: Marble Busts Attributed to Francesco da Sangallo
Periodical Title: Apollo
Author: Dr. William E. Wallace
Title: Satyr
Periodical Title: City Art Museum Poster of Events
Edition: April
Year Published: 1948
Title: Taste and the Antique: The Lure of Classical Sculpture, 1500-1900
Author: Francis Haskill
Author: Nicholas Penny
Title: Montorsoli: Die Brunnen
Year Published: 1979
Title: Seventeenth-Century Barberini Documents and Inventories of Art
Year Published: 1975
Title: The Farington Diary
Author: Joseph Farington
Editor: James Grieg
Title: A New View: More European Art to 1800
Periodical Title: Saint Louis Art Museum Magazine
Publisher: Saint Louis Art Museum
Title: See for Yourself: Myths and Stories
Periodical Title: A Gallery Guide for The Saint Louis Art Museum
Publisher: Saint Louis Art Museum
Title: Pastoral
Year Published: 2000
Title: Per Il Giovane Francesco da Sangallo
Periodical Title: Nuovi Studi: Rivista di Arte Antica e Moderna
Author: Francesco Ortenzi
Title: Art in Focus
Edition: Fourth
Year Published: 2000
Title: Mostra del Cinquecento toscano in Palazzo Strozzi
Year Published: 1940
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