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© The Nolde Foundation
Title: Red Evening Sky
Date: 1915
Artist: Emil Nolde
German, 1867–1956
Medium: oil on canvas
Dimensions:
34 x 39 7/8 in. (86.4 x 101.3 cm)
Credit Line: Bequest of Morton D. May
Object Number: 924:1983
Current Location: On View, Gallery 214
Notes:
In this incandescent view animated by three sailboats, the sky is streaked with fuschia and mauve, and the setting sun is reflected on the sea. Emil Nolde’s landscape is probably informed by his memories of the South Seas, which he had visited the previous year. Nolde believed that intense colors could evoke sounds as well as deep emotion; he wrote of “colors in vibration, pealing like silver bells and clanging like bronze bells, proclaiming happiness, passion and love, soul, blood, and death.”
Signed: l.r., in brown paint: Emil Nolde.
Provenance
by 1920 - still in 1954
Dr. Peter Bade (1872-1956), Hanover, Germany, purchased from the artist; Dr. Alfred Hahn and Liselotte Bade-Hahn, Hanover, Germany [1]

Kestner-Gesellschaft, Hanover, Germany [2]

Commeter Gallery, Hamburg, Germany

- 1957
Moderne Galerie Otto Stangl, Munich, Germany [3]

1957 - 1958
New Gallery (Eugene V. Thaw), New York, NY, USA [4]

1958/12/04 - 1983
Morton D. May (1914-1983), St. Louis, MO, purchased from New Gallery [5]

1983 -
Saint Louis Art Museum, bequest of Morton D. May [6]


Notes:
The main source for this provenance is the catalogue raisonné on Emil Nolde, cat. 648 [Urban, Martin. "Emil Nolde: Catalogue Raisonné of the Oil-Paintings. Volume Two 1915-1951." London: Sotheby's Publications, 1990]. Exceptions and other supporting documents are noted.

[1] A 1920 exhibition catalogue lists the painting as from the collection of Dr. Peter Bade ["Neue Kunst aus Hannoverschem Privatbesitz / Architekturen von E. Mendelsohn. XXX Sonder-Ausstellung." Hanover: Kestner-Gesellschaft, January 8 - February 4, 1920, cat. 75]. Peter Bade was an orthopedist and politician. According to Dr. Manfred Reuther, Director of the Stiftung Seebüll Ada und Emil Nolde, Bade may have purchased the work when it was offered for sale during a 1918 exhibition at Kestner-Gesellschaft ["Emil Nolde, XII. Sonderausstellung." Kestner-Gesellschaft, Hannover, January 6 - February 6, 1918, cat. 29; letter dated March 14, 2006, SLAM document files].

The painting stayed in Bade's family until at least 1954 when his son-in-law, Dr. Alfred Hahn, lent it to an exhibition at Kestner-Gesellschaft ["Zeitgenössische Kunst aus Hannoverschem Privatbesitz". Hannover: Kestner-Gesellschaft, 1954, cat. 132]. Peter Bade's granddaughter, Dr. Ilse Hahn, informed the Museum that her grandfather purchased the work from his friend, the artist. She also confirmed that her parents, Liselotte Bade-Hahn and Alfred Hahn, saved the painting from bombs during World War II in their Hanover home [notes of telephone conversation between Dr. Ilse Hahn and SLAM provenance researcher Anabelle Kienle, April 12, 2006, SLAM document files].

To make matters confusing, the catalogue raisonné erroneously indicates that the original owner of the painting was Dr. Hermann Bode (1900-1977), a known collector from Hanover. It does not, however, include the 1920 catalogue which lists Dr. Peter Bade as the owner. Furthermore, the artist himself registered "Sanitätsrat Bade, Hanover" as the original owner of this work in his typed catalog of paintings, created in 1930. Without the 1920 exhibition catalogue documentation, Nolde's handlist notation was believed to be a typing error [letters from Dr. Manfred Reuther, Director of the Stiftung Seebüll Ada und Emil Nolde, dated June 22, 2001 and March 14, 2006, SLAM document files].

[2] According to Morton D. May's object records, and the 1970 catalogue of his collection, the Kestner-Gesellschaft is listed as owning the picture after "Sanitatsrat Bade, Hanover" and before it was owned or offered for sale through the Commeter Gallery ["The Morton D. May Collection of 20th Century German Masters." New York: Marlborough-Gerson Gallery, 1970, cat. 106; May Archives, Saint Louis Art Museum]. This reference, however, was not found in any other sources. Although the catalogue raisonné does not include Kestner-Gesellschaft in the history for this painting, the author does state that galleries and auctioneers who handled a painting are included in the provenance, even when they did not own the painting [Urban, v.1, p. 47].

[3] The painting is listed in the collection of Moderne Galerie Otto Stangl in a 1957 summer exhibition ["Gedächtnisausstellung Emil Nolde." Essen: Museum Folkwang, June 29 - September 1, 1957, cat. 97].

[4] The catalog for the exhibition at Eugene Victor Thaw's New Gallery from September 25 - October 26, 1957 does not indicate that this painting was on loan, suggesting it was in the New Gallery's collection by this time ["Emil Nolde." New York: New Gallery, 1957, cat. 5].

[5] Per May's object information sheet [May Archives, Saint Louis Art Museum].

[6] Last Will and Testament of M. D. May dated June 11, 1982 [copy, May Archives, Saint Louis Art Museum]. Minutes of the Acquisitions and Loans Committee of the Board of Trustees, Saint Louis Art Museum, September 20, 1983.
Exhibition History
Title: Emil Nolde: Gemälde, Graphik. XIII Sonderausstellung
Date: January 6 - February 6, 1918
Venue: Kestner Gesellschaft
Title: The Morton D. May Collection of German Expressionist Paintings (1974)
Date: October 20, 1974 - November 24, 1974
Venue: The Jack S. Blanton Museum of Art
Title: German Expressionist Paintings from the Collection of Mr. Morton D. May (1967)
Date: September 20 - October 22, 1967
Venue: Portland Art Museum
Title: The Seashore: Paintings of the 19th and 20th Centuries
Date: October 22 - December 5, 1965
Venue: Carnegie Museum of Art
Title: German Expressionist Paintings from the Morton D. May Collection (1959)
Date: April 11 - May 2, 1959
Venue: University of Wisconsin, Madison
Title: Title unknown (1915, Nolde)
Date: 1915
Venue: Galerie Ludwig Schames
Title: Title unknown (1916, Nolde)
Date: January 22 - February, 1916
Venue: Galerie Arnold
Title: Zeitgenössische Kunst aus Hannoverschem Privatbesitz
Date: May 9 - June 13, 1954
Venue: Kestner Gesellschaft
Title: Expressionisten: Sammlung Morton D. May
Date: September 27, 1968 - September 14, 1969
Venue: Museum des 20. Jahrhunderts
Venue: Badischer Kunstverein, Karlsruhe
Venue: Museum Folkwang
Venue: Kunsthalle Bremen
Venue: Kunsthalle Bielefeld
Venue: Wallraf-Richartz-Museum
Title: German Expressionist Paintings from the Collection of Mr. and Mrs. Morton D. May (1960-1963)
Date: November 13, 1960 - January 6, 1963
Venue: The Baltimore Museum of Art
Venue: William Rockhill Nelson Gallery of Art
Venue: Carnegie Museum of Art
Venue: The Corcoran Gallery of Art
Venue: University of California, Los Angeles
Venue: Fine Arts Gallery of San Diego
Venue: Denver Art Museum
Venue: The Butler Institute of American Art
Venue: Akron Art Museum
Venue: M. H. de Young Memorial Museum, Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco
Venue: The Art Institute of Chicago
Title: Paintings from the Collection of Mr. and Mrs. Morton D. May (1960)
Date: February 14 - July 4, 1960
Venue: Pius XII Memorial Library
Title: Years of Ferment: the Birth of Twentieth Century Art 1886-1914
Date: January 23 - August 22, 1965
Venue: University of California, Los Angeles
Venue: San Francisco Museum of Modern Art
Venue: The Cleveland Museum of Art
Title: Neue Kunst aus Hannoverschem Privatbesitz / Architekturen von E. Mendelsohn. XXX Sonder-Ausstellung
Date: January 8 - February 4, 1920
Venue: Kestner Gesellschaft
Title: Gedächtnisausstellung Emil Nolde
Date: June 29 - September 1, 1957
Venue: Kunstverein München
Venue: Kunstverein Hamburg
Venue: Museum Folkwang
Title: Paths of Abstract Art
Date: October 4 - November 13, 1960
Venue: The Cleveland Museum of Art
Title: Emil Nolde (1957)
Date: September 25 - October 26, 1957
Venue: New Gallery
Publication History
Title: German Expressionist Paintings from the Morton D. May Collection
Year Published: 1959
Title: German Expressionist Paintings From the Collection of Mr. & Mrs. Morton D. May
Edition: 2
Year Published: 1960
Title: Zeitgenössische Kunst aus Hannoverschem Privatbesitz
Publisher: Kestner Gesellschaft
Title: German Expressionist Paintings from the Collection of Mr. Morton D. May
Year Published: 1967
Title: Paths of Abstract Art
Author: Edward B. Henning
Publisher: The Cleveland Museum of Art
Title: The Morton D. May Collection of German Expressionist Paintings
Year Published: 1974
Title: Paintings from the Collection of Mr. and Mrs. Morton D. May
Author: M.B. McNamee, S.J.
Title: German Expressionist Paintings From the Collection of Mr. and Mrs. Morton D. May
Edition: 1
Year Published: 1960
Title: Emil Nolde
Publisher: New Gallery
Title: Gedächtnisausstellung Emil Nolde
Year Published: 1957
Title: Emil Nolde: Gemälde, Graphic: XIII Sonderausstellung
Publisher: Kestner Gesellschaft
Title: The Seashore: Paintings of the 19th and 20th Centuries
Year Published: 1965
Title: Years of Ferment: the Birth of Twentieth Century Art 1886-1914
Year Published: 1965
Title: Neue Kunst aus Hannoverschem Privatbesitz / Architekturen von E. Mendelsohn. XXX Sonder-Ausstellung
Publisher: Kestner Gesellschaft
Title: Max Beckmann und die deutschen Expressionisten aus der Sammlung Morton D. May
Publisher: Wallraf-Richartz-Museum
Title: Emil Nolde: Catalogue Raisonné of the Oil Paintings. Volume Two 1915-1951
Author: Martin Urban
Title: Deutsche Expressionisten aus der Sammlung Morton D. May, St. Louis, USA
Publisher: Kunsthalle Bielefeld
Title: The Morton D. May Collection of 20th Century German Masters
Year Published: 1970
Title: Expressionisten: Sammlung Morton D. May
Publisher: Museum des 20. Jahrhunderts
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